Editor's note: The fiery autumn harvest, the northern basic particles return to the warehouse, the southern country rice glutinous rice gradually fades, 2019 is destined to be a bumper year, the grain output is expected to stabilize at more than 1.3 trillion jin for the fifth consecutive year, China's grain output will be Achieving a record "16th consecutive year". At present, the average yield of food crops nationwide has increased to 374.7 kilograms, more than five times that of the early days of New China. Under the gratifying data, the power of modern Chinese agricultural machinery and equipment has contributed. At the beginning of the last century, crawler tractors were introduced. By 1940, the United States basically realized agricultural mechanization. By 1949, the most familiar production tools for Chinese farmers were the cattle in the field and the sickle in their hands. In the past seventy years, from the sowing, application, fertilizer, harvesting and drying, from rice and wheat to cotton, peanuts and peanuts, there are all kinds of mechanical equipment. The land of China, above the mob, is the power of the machine everywhere, and behind it is the power of wisdom.
During the harvest season, Henan Xinyang, several large combine harvesters roared in the endless wheat fields.
At the time of autumn harvest, on the vast land of northeast China, many small harvesters are harvesting at an efficiency of 5 mu to 7 mu per hour.
70 years ago in China, agricultural production has always been "depending on the sky". The farming relies mainly on animal power to pull the plow. The number of agricultural tractors in the country is a poor three-digit number. All large-scale agricultural machinery is blank. Today, the comprehensive mechanization rate of crop cultivation and harvesting in the country exceeds 67%, and the “machine substitution” is gradually realized in some fields and parts. We can even use satellite positioning and cloud computing technology to achieve precise management of the fields and future fields. It is the stage of artificial intelligence.
In the field, from the human and animal power to the historical leap to the mechanical operation, what has China's agricultural mechanization experienced?
1 yuan banknotes and the most beautiful tractor hand
In the list of the "most beautiful strugglers" for the 70th anniversary of the founding of New China, Liang Jun’s name is juxtaposed with Lei Feng, Yuan Longping and Tu Yu. Some people may not be familiar with her. In fact, the figure of the character designed by Liang Jun is in the picture. The third set of RMB 1 yuan notes.
She is the earliest female tractor hand in New China and the first national model worker. Her hard work story is the epitome and testimony of the struggle for self-improvement of agricultural mechanization in China.
In the 1990s, Liang Jun had retired from the position of chief engineer of Harbin City Agricultural Machinery Bureau. If this year's event is already high, it is not convenient for interviews. Teacher Shi Guifang from China Agricultural University, who had visited the elderly, was very familiar with Liang Jun’s deeds. "In 1948, the tractors imported by the central government from the Soviet Union were farmed in the ridiculous land of Peking University. The Heilongjiang Provincial Party Committee held a training class. Liang Jun, who had made great progress, signed the first time, so there was a female tractor who struggled in the Great Northern Wilderness. In 1950, the first women's tractor team in New China named after Liang Jun was established, and Liang Jun was the captain. Women opened tractors, which was a rare event at the time, and even a historic moment."
If women open tractors imported from the former Soviet Union, in the early days of the founding of New China, they were vivid interpretations of "women can top half the sky". Then in November 1959, the first batch of Dongfanghong tractors arrived in Heilongjiang, and Liang Jun excitedly tested the scene. Is another historic moment. This is not only because her style was captured by reporters, but also because of the large-scale agricultural machinery equipment made in China, and finally boarded the vast fields of China.
In 1940, the United States achieved comprehensive agricultural mechanization. At the beginning of the founding of New China, there were only 117 agricultural tractors in the country, which were purely imported. In 1955, as one of the 156 key construction projects during the “First Five-Year Plan” period, China’s largest tractor manufacturing plant broke ground in Luoyang, as indicated by Chairman Mao Zedong. On July 20, 1958, the first high-powered crawler tractor in New China slowly opened its factory, and the workers were in tears. At that time, the newspaper announced that the Chinese people’s arable land did not need cattle.
The era of no cattle began. In 1958, workers and peasants expected it, but even the most imaginative people would not have imagined that 60 years later, China was already the world’s number one agricultural machinery manufacturer and use. In the big countries, 90% of the market is supported by local brands, covering more than 4,000 kinds of agricultural machinery in 65 categories and 1,500 sub-catets required for agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery and agricultural transportation.
Receiving autumn harvest from summer, mechanized landscape on the field
In 2019, the autumn harvest was received from the summer. The reporters of the Beijing News witnessed the popularity and efficiency of agricultural mechanization in many places across the country. It is said that the machine “completely liberated the hands of the majority of farmers in China” may be slightly exaggerated, but it definitely makes farmers generally Get away from physical labor.
In the summer harvest at the end of May, in Anyang, Henan Province, the reporter witnessed the busy scene of the migration of the new era “Mike” across the region. The local farmer Liu Kuitang clearly remembers that in the production team, every summer harvest, everyone had to take the sickle and seize the time to cut the wheat. I really can't wait, because once I have passed, I have to watch the wheat rotten in the ground. On May 24th, Liu Kuitang pointed to the 4 acres of wheat land that had just been cut by other families. "This has also been cut for more than an hour. Before going to the ground, 4 acres of land will be cut to at least four days." He counted his own 17 acres of wheat fields, and all the farm work was arranged for up to two days, and the wheat harvest work was completed.
In the past, the people who used to collect wheat for others were called “Mike”, and their tools were sickle. With the development and advancement of agricultural mechanization, the maks who harvested wheat with a sickle were gradually abandoned by the times. From iron boring tools to combine harvesters of more than 100,000 yuan, there is a world of difference in efficiency. Artificial wheat cutting has long been a major wheat producing area in the country. The "handsman" of the combine harvester is the "new maiden" of this new era. Every year in May, only in Weinan, Shaanxi, there are 16,000 “handsmen” who set off from their hometowns to collect wheat from all over the country and run through half of China.
In the autumn harvest in September, the reporter once again witnessed the high efficiency of mechanized farmland operations in Hebei and Jiangsu. Zhangjiakou, Hebei, the Beijing News reporter saw that the high-power corn harvester came into the market, and the price of 100 yuan per mu could be bargained. The machine actually had an upgraded version this year, not only can the skin go, even the straw is directly After the smashing process was completed, there was a farm vehicle in the field, and then it was towed away by the “stalk broker”.
Some harvesters were complaining because the corn husks were not peeled off during processing. Some villagers lamented that in the past, when they were in the autumn harvest, they were afraid of entering the ground. The corn cobs were hand-made one by one, the sun was poisonous, and the arms could not be lifted up in a day, even if it could not receive two acres of land, but now there is The harvester, a hundred acres of land has also become easy and easy. In Taicang, Jiangsu, rice harvesting is no longer a heavy manual labor. There are large harvesters and balers in the field, rice transport trucks are “transported”, food processing centers have dryers, and harvesting is no longer necessary to race against rainy days.
In fact, agricultural production is now mechanized in various categories and “businesses”. In Ulan Qab, the “potato capital”, large-scale agricultural machinery is used from planting to harvesting. In Baoding, Hebei, the peanut harvester is no stranger to the locals. In the south, there was a sugarcane harvester. Pesticide spraying, many places now have a drone plant protection team, the controller is called "flying hand", an acre of crops sprayed in a few minutes, the cheapest is only 10 dollars. Relying on modern agricultural machinery and equipment, in today's many village cooperative farms and even large-scale family farms, several people can complete hundreds of acres of farmland for two seasons.
Agricultural mechanization road with Chinese characteristics
From "depending on the heavens" or even "slashing and cultivating" to "comprehensive and full mechanization", China's agricultural mechanization has continued to develop and has embarked on a road with Chinese characteristics.
From 1949 to 1980, the central government put forward clear agricultural mechanization development goals and corresponding guidelines and policies, and set up agricultural machinery stations in qualified social and military teams to support the mass agricultural tools reform movement. China's agricultural machinery industry started from the manufacture of new types of agricultural machinery, and gradually developed from scratch.
From 1981 to 1995, the rural household contract responsibility system was implemented, and the collective agricultural machinery station was gradually disbanded. The state began to allow farmers to purchase and operate agricultural machinery independently. Farmers gradually became the mainstay of investment and management of agricultural machinery. In order to adapt to the major changes in the organization of agricultural production, the agricultural machinery industry began the first round of large-scale structural adjustment, focusing on the production of small-scale agricultural machinery, walking tractors, agricultural and sideline products processing machinery, and agricultural transport vehicles suitable for small-scale operation in rural areas at that time. The holding capacity of large and medium-sized tractors and supporting agricultural implements has stagnated, the gear ratio of machinery and equipment has been out of balance, the utilization rate of field machinery is low, and the mechanization level of farmland operations has been slow.
By the mid-1990s, the rural labor force began to show a large number of shifting trends, and the trend of seasonal labor shortage in rural areas continued to emerge. The relevant state ministries and commissions began to organize large-scale wheat cross-regional machine-receiving services, and the utilization rate and operating efficiency of combine harvesters were greatly improved. The effective way to solve the contradiction between small-scale farmers' production and agricultural machinery scale operation was explored, and the development of characteristic agricultural mechanization Initial formation. The agricultural machinery industry also ushered in a new round of product structure adjustment, high-efficiency large and medium-sized agricultural machinery began to resume growth, the growth of small-scale agricultural machinery slowed down, and the combine harvester suddenly emerged, which once became the pillar industry of agricultural machinery industry development.
The upgrading of agricultural machinery and tools is actually a microcosm of the development of China's agriculture. From the perspective of tractors and the gradual diversification of models, it has confirmed the development of China's agricultural machinery and even the entire Chinese agriculture.
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the pace of agricultural science and technology innovation has accelerated markedly, and rural rejuvenation has been inserted into the wings of science and technology. Take tractors as an example. At present, domestically-made autonomous driving and unmanned tractors have been successfully developed. The China Artificial Intelligence Association predicts that by 2030, unmanned tractors will be popular in rural China. Compared with the era when tractors were "rare things" 70 years ago, in the past 70 years, the development of China's agricultural mechanization can only be described as "great changes."
Agricultural machinery learns people's heart: "More pain, we must persist"
China has become a big country in agricultural machinery. Countless workers, peasants, experts and scholars have quietly contributed to it. The life of the late famous agricultural machinery expert Zeng Dechao can be a microcosm.
"Societies have long been war-torn, and farmers are the first to bear the brunt. If we learn agriculture, we should return to China immediately and use our knowledge to send charcoal to the peasants." This is the reason why agricultural machinery expert Zeng Dechao returned to China in 1948, and he later became a new Chinese agricultural machinery and One of the founders of the agricultural engineering discipline.
Because of the participation in the academic growth data collection project of the old scientists, Zhang Yuanfan, the author of "The Dancer of Zeng Dechao" and the young cadre of China Agricultural University, had the opportunity to fully understand Zeng Dechao. In addition to consulting various materials, Zhang Yuanfan also deliberately visited Zeng Decao to study. Where you work, visit your children and colleagues and colleagues so that you can write Zeng Dechao's story more realistically and thoroughly.
According to Zhang Yuanfan, Zeng Dechao studied in the United States, which also led him to discover the huge differences between China and the United States at that time. When he was young, Mr. Zeng Dechao’s grandmother would bring him to feed two piglets at home. After studying in the United States, he was surprised to find that an average American farmer could manage 500 pigs through automatic feeding buckets. This made Mr. Zeng Dechao realize that only science and technology can develop Chinese agriculture. However, while bringing advanced foreign experience, Zeng Dechao pays more attention to the combination with China's reality. After returning to China, he insisted on the rural land and improved agricultural machinery products. Later, in the preparatory work of the Beijing Mechanized Agricultural College (one of the predecessors of China Agricultural University), Zeng Dechao served as the sole director of the Department of Agricultural Mechanization, and personally prepared textbooks to participate in teaching.
In February 2005, Academician Zeng Dechao, who was over 80 years old, was admitted to the hospital for cardiac pacemaker installation because of his low heart rate. After leaving the hospital, it coincided with the implementation of a major consulting project of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Zeng Decao made many valuable suggestions and opinions. Zhang Yuanfan said, "According to the family's memories, at that time, Zeng Dechao old man always waited until the family fell asleep at night, secretly went to work in front of the computer. Sometimes discouraged, the old man would lose his temper and be angry that the family is the biggest when he works. The enemy, but also the civilized stick in his hand, knocked hard on the ground, and knocked it again and shouted 'Agricultural Mechanization, I have something to say'."
Nowadays, the old man has been away for seven years. On the top of the shack, the agricultural machinery is swaying. This hot scene is like the old man of Zeng Dechao. However, the agricultural machinery market is large but not strong, the overall quality needs to be improved, the innovation and research and development capabilities are still weak, and some core components rely on imports and other bottlenecks. In the case of agricultural mechanization, there is still a long way to go in China. On many occasions, the teachers and students of the Agricultural University of China who attacked the agricultural machinery often remembered Zeng Dechao’s words: “The issue of agriculture, rural areas and farmers is a long-term and arduous task, and it requires people who have real skills and dedication. It is meaningful and worthwhile for the groups that need the most help to do something useful. If we are bitter, we must persist if you want to do something for our nation."
China's agricultural upgrading under mechanized guarantee
From no farming to slash-and-burn cultivation, to mechanized farming, the world's agriculture has experienced three upgrades. The over-exploitation of the land has led to a series of ecological problems such as land fertility decline, sand dust and pollution. With the popularization of mechanization and technological upgrading, China, a large agricultural country, has ushered in the opportunity of agricultural upgrading.
On a desk in the 6th floor office of the College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, there is a stack of books, "Protective Tillage Technology Science Series", "Ecological Environment Effect of Conservation Tillage"... This desk is Professor Li Hongwen of the University of Agriculture. of.
"I am very happy. After several years of hard work, it proves the superiority of this technology, and proves that China can use self-developed machinery to achieve conservation tillage." Li Hongwen said.
According to incomplete statistics, more than 200 enterprises in China have produced different forms of protective tillage equipment, providing equipment support for the implementation of more than 100 million mu of field conservation tillage.
The majority of peasants 70 years ago did not dare to imagine that 70 years later, by using protective tillage equipment, they can be directly planted without tumbling over the ground and covered with straw on the surface, saving time and effort.